Patients in critical care settings are more susceptible to nosocomial infections. Overall, compared with the general hospital population, patients in ICUs have more chronic comorbid illnesses and more severe acute physiologic derangements. The widespread use of indwelling catheters and devices among ICU patients provides a portal of entry of organisms into vital body organs and sites. The use and maintenance of these catheters necessitate frequent contact with health care personnel, predisposing patients to colonization and infection with nosocomial pathogens. In addition, equipment associated with the proper maintenance of these devices might serve as reservoirs for pathogens and be related to horizontal patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens.
Ref:Osman MF, Askari R, Infection control in the intensive care unit, Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Dec;94(6):1175-94.